DERIVATIVES or WORD FORMATION

 

1- a/ an/ the/ this/these/ those/ my ..their +  Noun Phrase:

Noun phraseNoun là từ cuối cùng, trước nó là một hoặc vài Adj, trước Adj là Adv.

Eg: This is a _______________ girl. (beauty)

è Sau a là Noun Phrase với danh từ girl, trước đó sẽ là Adj.

         This is his __________ organized room. (good)

è Noun Phrase này có danh từ là room, organized là V3 cũng coi như Adj, vậy từ trước đó sẽ là Adv.

2/ Prepositions + Noun Phrase:

Eg: He is  fond of  _____________ places. (peace) .

Lưu ý đng b nhm vi mu ca verb form (sau gii t dùng Ving)

3/ Ch ng (subject) hay tân ng (Object) = Noun Phrase.

Eg: She likes ________________ men. (care) .

         _____________ driving always causes accidents. (care) .

         Money can’t buy _______________ (happy).

4/ Linking verbs (be – look  – seem – feel …) + Adj Phrase:

– Adj phrase có Adj ở vị trí cuối cùng, trước nó chỉ còn Adv miêu tả cho Adj đó.

Eg: The city was _____________ destroyed. (complete).

       She looks ____________ (wonder).

5/ S + V + O + ?:

– S + V + O + Adv:  Adv miêu tả cho Verb

Eg: She drives the car ________________ (good).

– S + V + O + Adj:  Adj miêu tả cho Object vốn dĩ là Noun

Eg: She found the test ________________ for her. (ease).

Đi vi S V O ta phi dch ri mi làm.

6/ Intransitive verb + Adv:

– Intransitive verb (nội động từ) là những động từ không cần Object. Ví dụ: go – walk – smile …

Eg: We walked _________________ (slow).

– Ngoài ra Adv có thể đứng trước Verb, giữa Auxiliary verb và Ordinary verb, hoặc ngay đầu câu:

Eg: We ___________________ go out after dinner. (usual)

They can’t _____________________ get good marks. (frequent)

________________________, the Vietnamese celebrate Tet in late Jan or early Feb. (tradition)

            Trên đây là sáu cách xác đnh cơ bn. Tuy nhiên đ thông tho derivatives chúng ta s gp nhiu khó khăn. Th nht là phi dch mi biết chc. Th hai là phi lp t đin derivatives theo 4 ct V – N – Adj – Adv. Th ba là có th có nhiu t cùng mt t loi khiến ta phi la chn v ý nghĩa.

Người hc gii  không bao gi phi hc v trí t mà h ch cn dch đúng vì ch có my nguyên tc cơ bàn sau: S / O phi là Noun phrase, miêu t N phi là Adj, miêu t Verb phi là Adv, miêu t Adj phi là Adv

Eg: They paid only $10 for such a big cake. It is so _____________________ (expense)


Practice:

1-       We like their ___________________ (friendly).

2-       The ________________ betweenVietnamandChinais good. (friend)

3-       They seem to be ________________. We dislike them. (friend)

4-       There will be a ___________________ in this street. (meet)

5-       We saw ___________________ girls there. (beauty)

6-       The garden is ________________ with trees and flowers. (beauty)

7-       They enjoy the ___________________ atmosphere here. (peace)

8-       The ___________________ unit of currency is the Ringit. (Malaysia)

9-       In ___________________, there are other religions. (add)

10-   They like Pho Bo. ________________, they enjoy Bun Bo. (add)

11-   The ___________________ anthem ofViet Namis sung. (nation)

12-   There is an ________________ match betweenVietnamandLebanonon VTV3. (nation)

13-   The language of ___________________ is BahasaMalaysia. (instruct)

14-   Ao Dai is the ___________________ dress of Vietnamese women. (tradition)

15-   ___________________, Ao Dai is worn by women. (tradition)

16-   To Huu is a famous___________________ (poetry). His ________________ are interesting.

17-   Ao Dai is always ___________________ (fashion)

18-   Jeans are ___________________ made from cotton. (complete)

19-   The ___________________ fromGenoaenjoyed wearing jeans. (work)

20-   ___________________ of clothes always goes up. (sell)

21-   At the ___________________ to the village, we saw the accident. (enter)

22-   They had an ___________________ day by the river. (enjoy)

23-   They are ___________________ – qualified teachers. (good)

24-   We need further ___________________ (inform)

25-   This book is very ________________ (inform)

26-   Look at the ___________________. Rain Bi looks handsome. (advertise)

27-   It is an ___________________ program. (interest)

28-   The song is ________________ to me. (interest)

29-   We felt ________________ in the show. (interset)

30-   English is his ___________________ . (nation)

31-   It is cheap. It’s ___________________ (expensive)

32-   ___________________ TV is available now. (interact)

33-   The ________________ between this computer and the others is good. (interact)

34-   The ___________________ of TV is always fast. (develop)

35-   Libraries are helpful in ________________ children’s  love for books. (develop)

36-   The Internet has ___________________ developed nowadays. (increase)

37-   The Internet is one of the most important ___________________ of our life. (invent)

38-   Everyone has their ___________________ which are hardly recognized by themselves. (limit)

39-   The website is not ___________________ for teenagers. It’s ________________ (use)

40-   Their ___________________ is always good. (communicate)

41-   She is a ________________ girl. (communicate)

42-   Listen ___________________ please. (care)

43-   We’re ___________________ that our environment is spoiled. (disappoint)

44-   Our boys play ________________ today. (disappoint)

45-   We’re worried about the ___________________ here. (pollute)

46-   This river is extremely ___________________. (pollute)

47-   A ___________________ faucet may waste 500 liters of water a month. (drip)

48-   InViet Nam, electricity, gas, and water are not only ________________ but also _______________ (lux/ need)

49-   Her appearance is ________________ today. (need)

50-   Farm ___________________ are always exported. (produce)

51-   This plant’s ________________ is high, so it attracts a lot of investment. (produce)

52-   The ________________ of this machine requires the latest techniques. (produce)

53-   This energy-___________________ bulb is not cheap. (save)

54-   The ___________________ are requiring us to repair the machines. (consume)

55-   Watching Korean films on TV is a time-___________________ activity. (consume)

56-   Water ________________ is increasing this summer. (consume)

57-   The ___________________ of the model attracts us. (efficient)

58-   They are working ________________, so we are ________________. (effect / satisfy)

59-   Life always needs a lot of ___________________. (innovate)

60-   The ___________________ are cleaning the beach. (conserve)

61-   ___________________, our environment must be protected. (ultimate)

62-   Tet is the most important ___________________ inViet Nam. (celebrate)

63-   Fruits’ festival in Suoi Tien park is a very ___________________ activity. (joy)

64-   Look at the ___________________ bulbs. They are so beautiful. (color)

65-   My ___________________ are so strong that the word “love” can’t describe them. (feel)

66-   The ___________________     ___________________ caused a lot of bad effects. (volcano/ erupt)

67-   Our ___________________ have not warned our fishermen about the Chanchu typhoon carefully. (science)

68-   A ________________ eruption occurred here last night. (disaster)

69-   The beach is full of all kinds of ________________. (pollute)

70-   He used all his ____________ to force the door open.      STRONG

71-   The police are interested in the sudden ____________ of the valuable painting.      APPEAR

72-   My teacher ____________ me to take this examination.      COURAGE

73-   Recently health foods have increased in ____________.      POPULAR

74-   The old lady hid all her ____________ under the floor.      SAVE

75-   Your money will be refunded if the goods are not to your complete ____________.      SATISFY

76-   The council has promised to deal with the problem of ____________ among young people.    EMPLOY

77-   Tung had eaten so much he had to ____________ his belt.      LOOSE

78-   The dictionaries are with the other ____________ books.      REFER

79-   I had to check the wages in ____________ to my normal work.      ADD

80-   He was very ____________ of the work he had done.       PRIDE

81-   There is a ____________ of 10% in the amount of money available for buying new books.     REDUCE

82-   He is interested in the ____________ old buildings.      PRESERVE

83-   26. Saucepans are sold in the ____________ goods department.       HOUSE

84-   ‘Friends of the Earth’ is concerned about the ____________ of the natural environment.    CONSERVE

85-   Thousands of people have been made ____________ by the war.      HOME

86-   He wouldn’t listen to her repeated ____________, so in the end she went.      REFUSE

87-   The teacher gave his students  ____________ to leave the classroom.      PERMIT

88-   He grew up poor, but he overcame all difficulties and ____________ to become one of the most successful actors inVietnam.      HARD

89-    They said ‘good‑bye’ to each other just because of some minor ____________.      UNDERSTAND

90-    He is old. He’s getting ____________, and his ____________ often makes a lot of trouble.    FORGET

91-   This table may break under a lot of ____________.       PRESS

92-   Dr. Jones is a well‑known ____________. He has written several  novels, one of which was about the  ____________ meeting between the great leaders atYaltain 1945.      HISTORY

93-   You should go on a diet. You’re a bit ____________.       WEIGH

94-   The car is a complete write‑off. It is quite ______________.       REPAIR

95-   That little boy has a _____________ of cakes.       MOUTH

96-   The Saigon Giai Phong is a ____________ newspaper.       DAY

97-   She is from Tel Aviv. She is ____________.      ISRAEL

98-   Mary looks ____________ about something. She looks ___________ at everything.      WORRY

99-   I can’t believe you, what you say is quite ____________.     LOGIC

100-                        He is an ____________ doctor who just graduated from the medical school last year.     EXPERIENCE

 

ADJECTIVES ENDING IN –ING AND –ED

  1. amazed/amazing
  2. amused/amusing
  3. annoyed/annoying
  4. bored/boring
  5. bothered/bothering
  6. confused/confusing
  7. depressed/depressing
  8. disappointed/disappointing
  9. discouraged/discouraging
  10. displeased/displeasing
  11. dissatisfied/dissatisfying
  12. distinguished/distinguishing
  13. embarrassed/embarrassing
  14. encouraged/encouraging
  15. exhausted/exhausting
  16. excited/exciting
  17. fascinated/fascinating
  18. frightened/frightening
  19. horrified/horrifying
  20. interested/interesting
  21. moved/moving
  22. pleased/pleasing
  23. relaxed/relaxing
  24. satisfied/satisfying
  25. shocked/shocking
  26. surprised/surprising
  27. terrified/terrifying
  28. thrilled/thrilling
  29. tired/tiring
  30. worried/worrying