DERIVATIVES or WORD FORMATION
1- a/ an/ the/ this/these/ those/ my ..their + Noun Phrase:
– Noun phrase có Noun là từ cuối cùng, trước nó là một hoặc vài Adj, trước Adj là Adv.
Eg: This is a _______________ girl. (beauty)
è Sau a là Noun Phrase với danh từ girl, trước đó sẽ là Adj.
This is his __________ organized room. (good)
è Noun Phrase này có danh từ là room, organized là V3 cũng coi như Adj, vậy từ trước đó sẽ là Adv.
2/ Prepositions + Noun Phrase:
Eg: He is fond of _____________ places. (peace) .
– Lưu ý đừng bị nhầm với mẫu của verb form (sau giới từ dùng Ving)
3/ Chủ ngữ (subject) hay tân ngữ (Object) = Noun Phrase.
Eg: She likes ________________ men. (care) .
_____________ driving always causes accidents. (care) .
Money can’t buy _______________ (happy).
4/ Linking verbs (be – look – seem – feel …) + Adj Phrase:
– Adj phrase có Adj ở vị trí cuối cùng, trước nó chỉ còn Adv miêu tả cho Adj đó.
Eg: The city was _____________ destroyed. (complete).
She looks ____________ (wonder).
5/ S + V + O + ?:
– S + V + O + Adv: Adv miêu tả cho Verb
Eg: She drives the car ________________ (good).
– S + V + O + Adj: Adj miêu tả cho Object vốn dĩ là Noun
Eg: She found the test ________________ for her. (ease).
Đối với S V O ta phải dịch rồi mới làm.
6/ Intransitive verb + Adv:
– Intransitive verb (nội động từ) là những động từ không cần Object. Ví dụ: go – walk – smile …
Eg: We walked _________________ (slow).
– Ngoài ra Adv có thể đứng trước Verb, giữa Auxiliary verb và Ordinary verb, hoặc ngay đầu câu:
Eg: We ___________________ go out after dinner. (usual)
They can’t _____________________ get good marks. (frequent)
________________________, the Vietnamese celebrate Tet in late Jan or early Feb. (tradition)
Trên đây là sáu cách xác định cơ bản. Tuy nhiên để thông thạo derivatives chúng ta sẽ gặp nhiều khó khăn. Thứ nhất là phải dịch mới biết chắc. Thứ hai là phải lập từ điển derivatives theo 4 cột V – N – Adj – Adv. Thứ ba là có thể có nhiều từ cùng một từ loại khiến ta phải lựa chọn về ý nghĩa.
Người học giỏi không bao giờ phải học vị trí từ mà họ chỉ cần dịch đúng vì chỉ có mấy nguyên tắc cơ bàn sau: S / O phải là Noun phrase, miêu tả N phải là Adj, miêu tả Verb phải là Adv, miêu tả Adj phải là Adv
Eg: They paid only $10 for such a big cake. It is so _____________________ (expense)
1- We like their ___________________ (friendly).
2- The ________________ betweenVietnamandChinais good. (friend)
3- They seem to be ________________. We dislike them. (friend)
4- There will be a ___________________ in this street. (meet)
5- We saw ___________________ girls there. (beauty)
6- The garden is ________________ with trees and flowers. (beauty)
7- They enjoy the ___________________ atmosphere here. (peace)
8- The ___________________ unit of currency is the Ringit. (Malaysia)
9- In ___________________, there are other religions. (add)
10- They like Pho Bo. ________________, they enjoy Bun Bo. (add)
11- The ___________________ anthem ofViet Namis sung. (nation)
12- There is an ________________ match betweenVietnamandLebanonon VTV3. (nation)
13- The language of ___________________ is BahasaMalaysia. (instruct)
14- Ao Dai is the ___________________ dress of Vietnamese women. (tradition)
15- ___________________, Ao Dai is worn by women. (tradition)
16- To Huu is a famous___________________ (poetry). His ________________ are interesting.
17- Ao Dai is always ___________________ (fashion)
18- Jeans are ___________________ made from cotton. (complete)
19- The ___________________ fromGenoaenjoyed wearing jeans. (work)
20- ___________________ of clothes always goes up. (sell)
21- At the ___________________ to the village, we saw the accident. (enter)
22- They had an ___________________ day by the river. (enjoy)
23- They are ___________________ – qualified teachers. (good)
24- We need further ___________________ (inform)
25- This book is very ________________ (inform)
26- Look at the ___________________. Rain Bi looks handsome. (advertise)
27- It is an ___________________ program. (interest)
28- The song is ________________ to me. (interest)
29- We felt ________________ in the show. (interset)
30- English is his ___________________ . (nation)
31- It is cheap. It’s ___________________ (expensive)
32- ___________________ TV is available now. (interact)
33- The ________________ between this computer and the others is good. (interact)
34- The ___________________ of TV is always fast. (develop)
35- Libraries are helpful in ________________ children’s love for books. (develop)
36- The Internet has ___________________ developed nowadays. (increase)
37- The Internet is one of the most important ___________________ of our life. (invent)
38- Everyone has their ___________________ which are hardly recognized by themselves. (limit)
39- The website is not ___________________ for teenagers. It’s ________________ (use)
40- Their ___________________ is always good. (communicate)
41- She is a ________________ girl. (communicate)
42- Listen ___________________ please. (care)
43- We’re ___________________ that our environment is spoiled. (disappoint)
44- Our boys play ________________ today. (disappoint)
45- We’re worried about the ___________________ here. (pollute)
46- This river is extremely ___________________. (pollute)
47- A ___________________ faucet may waste 500 liters of water a month. (drip)
48- InViet Nam, electricity, gas, and water are not only ________________ but also _______________ (lux/ need)
49- Her appearance is ________________ today. (need)
50- Farm ___________________ are always exported. (produce)
51- This plant’s ________________ is high, so it attracts a lot of investment. (produce)
52- The ________________ of this machine requires the latest techniques. (produce)
53- This energy-___________________ bulb is not cheap. (save)
54- The ___________________ are requiring us to repair the machines. (consume)
55- Watching Korean films on TV is a time-___________________ activity. (consume)
56- Water ________________ is increasing this summer. (consume)
57- The ___________________ of the model attracts us. (efficient)
58- They are working ________________, so we are ________________. (effect / satisfy)
59- Life always needs a lot of ___________________. (innovate)
60- The ___________________ are cleaning the beach. (conserve)
61- ___________________, our environment must be protected. (ultimate)
62- Tet is the most important ___________________ inViet Nam. (celebrate)
63- Fruits’ festival in Suoi Tien park is a very ___________________ activity. (joy)
64- Look at the ___________________ bulbs. They are so beautiful. (color)
65- My ___________________ are so strong that the word “love” can’t describe them. (feel)
66- The ___________________ ___________________ caused a lot of bad effects. (volcano/ erupt)
67- Our ___________________ have not warned our fishermen about the Chanchu typhoon carefully. (science)
68- A ________________ eruption occurred here last night. (disaster)
69- The beach is full of all kinds of ________________. (pollute)
70- He used all his ____________ to force the door open. STRONG
71- The police are interested in the sudden ____________ of the valuable painting. APPEAR
72- My teacher ____________ me to take this examination. COURAGE
73- Recently health foods have increased in ____________. POPULAR
74- The old lady hid all her ____________ under the floor. SAVE
75- Your money will be refunded if the goods are not to your complete ____________. SATISFY
76- The council has promised to deal with the problem of ____________ among young people. EMPLOY
77- Tung had eaten so much he had to ____________ his belt. LOOSE
78- The dictionaries are with the other ____________ books. REFER
79- I had to check the wages in ____________ to my normal work. ADD
80- He was very ____________ of the work he had done. PRIDE
81- There is a ____________ of 10% in the amount of money available for buying new books. REDUCE
82- He is interested in the ____________ old buildings. PRESERVE
83- 26. Saucepans are sold in the ____________ goods department. HOUSE
84- ‘Friends of the Earth’ is concerned about the ____________ of the natural environment. CONSERVE
85- Thousands of people have been made ____________ by the war. HOME
86- He wouldn’t listen to her repeated ____________, so in the end she went. REFUSE
87- The teacher gave his students ____________ to leave the classroom. PERMIT
88- He grew up poor, but he overcame all difficulties and ____________ to become one of the most successful actors inVietnam. HARD
89- They said ‘good‑bye’ to each other just because of some minor ____________. UNDERSTAND
90- He is old. He’s getting ____________, and his ____________ often makes a lot of trouble. FORGET
91- This table may break under a lot of ____________. PRESS
92- Dr. Jones is a well‑known ____________. He has written several novels, one of which was about the ____________ meeting between the great leaders atYaltain 1945. HISTORY
93- You should go on a diet. You’re a bit ____________. WEIGH
94- The car is a complete write‑off. It is quite ______________. REPAIR
95- That little boy has a _____________ of cakes. MOUTH
96- The Saigon Giai Phong is a ____________ newspaper. DAY
97- She is from Tel Aviv. She is ____________. ISRAEL
98- Mary looks ____________ about something. She looks ___________ at everything. WORRY
99- I can’t believe you, what you say is quite ____________. LOGIC
100- He is an ____________ doctor who just graduated from the medical school last year. EXPERIENCE
ADJECTIVES ENDING IN –ING AND –ED